Emotional Transformation Therapy: An Interactive Ecological Psychotherapy

In his Memoir of Jane Austen, Edward Austen-Leigh planted the tradition, .. women's classic novels in the s—reasons, no doubt, why Austen preferred it in.

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Ironically, it was the two novice writers, Mary Shelley and Polidori, whose works have endured.

Almost out of nothing, the pair invented modern horror. The book the Shelleys, Byron, and Polidori were reading during their trip was called Fantasmagoriana. It was an anthology of eight stories of the supernatural published in Paris in but translated from the German. No indication of authors or of original sources was given and readers were invited to think of stories as of embellished versions of real supernatural cases. The title joyfully played with this ambiguity, evoking the kind of shows, popular at the time, which were known as phantasmagorias.

Based on the magic lantern an ancestor of cinema , these shows enabled audiences to see ghosts floating in the air, devils appearing and disappearing, young girls transforming into skeletons.

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In the end, the impresario came upon the stage, explaining it was all a trick. But in Paris, around , such shows had been briefly shut down by the police, when rumours had spread that the phantasmagoria could bring the king, Louis XVI, back from the dead. The book read by our holidaying writers proposed a similar gallery of horrors.

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5 Spooky German Ghost Stories to Keep You Awake at Night

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Fantasmagoriana: the German book of ghost stories that inspired Frankenstein

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A Very German Story

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